Classification of Sauces
Sauces may be broadly classified as:
Kitchen Sauces or Preparatory Sauce
Kitchen sauces are the ones usually prepared in the kitchen by the Chefs for the preparation and completion of various dishes. The quality, taste, appearance, eye appeal etc. of these sauces will greatly depend on the Chef’s skill, abilities and experience etc.
Proprietary sauces are the ones readily available in the proprietary shops and are usually prepared commercially by various manufacturing companies. These sauces are usually served on the table in restaurants as a part of accompaniments to certain dishes. These sauces are usually not prepared in the kitchen by the Chefs but are directly purchased from proprietary shops. e.g., Worcestershire sauce, A-1 sauce, LP sauce, HP sauce etc. The Chefs in the kitchen may use some of these sauces in marinades, as seasoning and in the preparation of certain dishes.
Kitchen sauces may be further classified as:
- Mother/Leading sauces
- Dessert sauces
- Miscellaneous sauces
- Compound Butters
Mother or Leading sauces may be further divided into Hot, Warm and Cold sauces, depending upon the degree of heat used in their preparation.
- Hot Sauces: Béchamel, Veloute, Espagnole and Tomato sauce.
- Warm Sauces: Hollandaise/ Béarnaise (Emulsion sauce)
- Cold Sauces: Mayonnaise sauce (Emulsion sauce)
Milk infused with Onion Cloute or Onion Pique + White Roux + Seasonings
White stock + Blond Roux + Seasonings
With Veal Stock —-Allemande
With Chicken Stock ——-Supreme
With Fish Stock —–Normandy
Brown stock + Brown Roux + Seasonings
Tomato + Stock + Roux (optional) + Seasonings
Clarified Butter + Egg yolks + Reduction of crushed peppercorns + Salt in vinegar and water + lime juice (modern chefs do not use a reduction instead they prepare a sabayon using only water and egg yolks)
Clarified Butter + Egg Yolks + Reduction of (chopped shallots, tarragon, chervil, white pepper) in white wine and tarragon vinegar + a pinch of Cayenne pepper + chopped tarragon and chervil
Olive / Salad Oil + Eggs Yolks + salt + Pepper powder + Mustard + vinegar + Lime juice + sugar (optional)
1) Derivatives of Béchamel Sauce
Béchamel + Grated Parmesan and Grated Gruyere cheese.
Béchamel + heavy cream.
Béchamel +prepared mustard.
Béchamel + Sautéed diced onions.
Béchamel + Cray fish tails +Cray fish butter + cream.
Scotch Egg Sauce
Béchamel +Hard boiled eggs (dices of egg whites and sieved yolks).
Béchamel +anchovy essence + diced cooked lobster flesh +a little cayenne pepper.
Béchamel + a reduction of fish stock and truffle essence + very red Lobster butter+ cayenne pepper.
Béchamel + little beef stock + grated horseradish + vinegar + cayenne pepper.
Avignon Sauce (avignonnaise)
Cream sauce flavored with garlic + Grated Parmesan +Egg yolks +chopped parsley.
2) Derivatives of Veloute Sauce
Allemande Sauce or Parisienne Sauce
Veloute +Mushroom liquor + egg yolks +grated nutmeg+ lemon juice. (This sauce is also known as Sauce Parisienne a name which is more logical and proper than Sauce Allemande).
Fish Veloute +mushroom liquor +Mussels liquor +fish stock + liaison (egg yolks + cream) + lemon juice.
Sauce Allemande+ mushrooms (to serve with poultry. To serve with fish – Fish Veloute + mushrooms + liaison is used instead of sauce allemande.
Sauce supreme + meat glaze + pimento butter.
Veloute + tomato puree + butter.
Fish Veloute+ chopped shallots sweated in butter + white wine + chopped parsley (special for fish).
Sauce Bonnefoy (White Bordelaise Sauce)
Make a white wine reduction with chopped shallots, ground pepper, bay leaf and thyme to this add ordinary Veloute and finish the sauce with a little chopped tarragon.
Oyster Sauce (Sauce Huitres)
Normande sauce + poached oysters.
Veloute + sautéed onions + paprika + butter.
Sauce Indienne (Curry Sauce)
Veloute+ Curry powder + Coconut milk + cream+ lemon juice.
Sauce Supreme + Meat glaze.
Sauce Normande finished with Cray fish and Shrimp butter instead cream and butter.
Sauce Normande + Lobster butter + dices of cooked lobster+ dices of truffle.
Reduction of white wine + chopped shallots + anchovy essence + mustard.
Sauce Diplomate + Truffle cut into small dices + truffle essence.
Reduction of white wine with Chervil, parsley, tarragon, chopped shallots and chives + Veloute + butter.
Sauce Regence for Fish Sauce
Normande + Reduction of Rhine wine with mushroom and truffle trimmings+ truffle essence.
Sauce Regence for Poultry
Same reduction as above + Sauce Allemande + truffle essence.
Sauce Allemande + Ham + Truffle essence. This sauce is used to coat certain food items and then they are Egg and Bread crumbed and deep fried.
3) Derivatives of Espagnole Sauce
(For Braised duck) Espagnole + D.G. (Demi Glaze) + orange juice + Orange zest + Lemon juice + Lemon zest.
Reduction of (red wine + shallots + peppercorns + bay leaf+ thyme) + Espagnole + Meat glaze (M.G.) + Lemon + dices of poached bone marrow (served with grilled red meat).
Reduction of (red wine + shallots + parsley + bay leaf+ thyme + mushroom) + Butter (Beurre Manie) + Cayenne Pepper (served with Eggs and dishes a la Bourguignonne).
Reduction of finely chopped sautéed onions + white wine + Demi Glaze + Sugar + English Mustard (served with grilled pork).
Sauce Robert + Juliennes of Gherkins. Served with grilled pork chops and any grilled meats.
Reduction of (white wine + slices of mushroom + finely chopped shallots) + D.G. + Tomato sauce +Butter+ Chopped Tarragon and Chervil.
Sauce Chasseur (Escoffiér’s method)
Meat Glaze + Demi Glaze + (White wine + Brandy + Mushrooms + Shallots) reduction + Tomato sauce + Parsley.
Sauce Colbert is actually Colbert Butter which is Maitre d’Hotel butter with the addition of meat glaze. I.e. Butter + Chopped Parsley + Lemon juice + salt.
Sauce Diable (Devilled Sauce)
Reduction of white wine and chopped shallots + Demi Glaze + strongly seasoned with Cayenne pepper. Served with grilled drilled chicken and pigeons.
Escoffiér’s Devilled sauce
It is commercially obtainable add equal amount of softened butter to the sauce before use. Serve with grilled or poached fish and for all grilled foods.
Espagnole + freshly crushed peppercorns + butter. This sauce is served with butcher’s meat.
Sauce Poivrade + whipped cream + crescent shaped pieces of truffle and hard boiled whites of eggs.
Demi Glaze + mushrooms + shallots + ham + chopped tarragon + chervil + parsley. Used in the preparation of many small entrées.
Reduction of chopped golden brown onions in white wine and vinegar + demi glaze.
Sauce Madere (Madeira Sauce)
Reduction of Demi Glaze until slightly thickened + Madeira wine to correct consistency.
Demi Glaze + Truffle essence + Chopped Truffle.
Reduction of (white wine + vinegar + shallots) + Espagnole + chopped Gherkins + tarragon + chervil + parsley. Usually served with grilled, roast or boiled pork or even with boiled beef.
Demi Glaze + reduction of white wine and mushroom liquor + mushrooms+ Cayenne pepper + julienne of cooked ham + salted ox tongue + truffle.
Demi Glaze + Cayenne pepper + Madeira garnished with onion rings + diced truffles.
Meat glace + butter + reduction of shallots and peppercorns in white wine garnished with dices of marrow + chopped parsley (served with grilled meats).
4) Derivatives of Tomato Sauce
Tomato sauce + meat glaze + chopped onions + concassed tomatoes + garlic + salt + sugar + chopped parsley.
Tomato Sauce + reduction of (white wine + garlic + onion) + Cayenne pepper + strip of red peppers.
Dices tomatoes sautéed in oil chopped parsley + garlic + salt + pepper + sugar.
Tomato Sauce + flavoured with garlic + garnished with chopped herbs.
Tomato puree + M.G. + D.G. + garlic + mushroom juliennes sautéed in butter. Algerian Tomato sauce garnished with strips of green or red pepper.
5) Derivatives of Hollandaise Sauce (Isigny Sauce or Dutch Sauce)
Hollandaise sauce + juice of two Blood Oranges + Grated zest of the same oranges. Served with asparagus.
Sauce Mousseline (also called Sauce Chantilly)
2/3 H. sauce + 1/3 Whipped Cream. Served with boiled fish and vegetables like asparagus celery, etc.
Hollandaise Sauce+ Mustard powder.
Dutch sauce garnished with chopped Gherkins, mushrooms and truffles.
Hollandaise Sauce + Cray fish butter + dices of Cray fish tails. Served with fish.
Hollandaise Sauce + Hazelnut butter (Beurre de Noisette). Served with poached salmon and trout.
Reduction of white wine, fish stock and fine mirepoix. Strain, add Egg yolks and finish with crayfish butter in the same way as with Hollandaise and anchovy sauce.
6) Derivatives of Béarnaise Sauce
Béarnaise Sauce It can be considered as a derivative of hollandaise sauce.
Béchamel + Tomato puree + anchovy paste + diced tomatoes.
Béarnaise Sauce made with a reduction of mint, shallots, white pepper in white wine and vinegar served with grilled meats.
Béchamel Sauce + Demi Glaze garnished with dices of tomatoes.
Béchamel Sauce + Tomato puree. Served with grilled meat and poultry.
Béchamel Sauce + Meat glaze. Served with grilled butcher’s meat.
Same as sauce Foyot.
Same reduction as for Béarnaise sauce + concentrated tomato purees + egg yolks and whisk over gentle heat and add oil (instead of clarified butter.) Correct seasoning and add a little Cayenne pepper. This sauce is suitable for serving with grilled meats and fish.
Same as Sauce Tyrolienne but with oil instead of butter.
Three parts of Normande sauce + one part of Tyrolienne sauce, finished with pale meat glaze and anchovy essence.
Béarnaise Sauce blended with fish glaze and tomato puree.
7) Derivatives of Mayonnaise Sauce
Sauce Alexandra (cold) Mayonnaise prepared with sieved yolks of hard boiled eggs + English Mustard + chopped chervil.
Mayonnaise Sauce+ lobster puree + mustard.
Mayonnaise Sauce + tomato puree garnished with dices of sweet peppers.
Mayonnaise Sauce made with cooked sieved hard- boiled eggs + chopped capers + gherkins + parsley + tarragon + chervil + white of hard boiled eggs cut into juliennes. Served with cold fish.
Mayonnaise Sauce + poached sieved calf’s brain + lemon + salt + pepper + chopped parsley. Served with cold meats.
Mayonnaise Sauce + Mustard + chopped gherkins + capers + chopped parsley + tarragon + chervil + anchovy essence. Served with various cold items/food.
Mayonnaise Sauce with hard boiled eggs garnished with finely chopped onions and chives.
2 parts of mayonnaise sauce + 1 part of whipped cream + lime juice
Mayonnaise Sauce + Derby Sauce + sour cream + lemon juice + chopped fennel. This sauce is mainly served with cold meat.
8) Miscellaneous Sauces
Butter sauce + simmered grated horseradish + cream + bread crumbs + egg yolks+ salt + pepper + mustard + vinegar. This sauce is suitable for joints of braised beef especially the fillet.
Cooked and well mashed apples + cinnamon + sugar. Served Luke warm, serve with roast duck, goose and pork.
White Bouillon made with thyme, basil, savory, marjoram, sage, chives, shallots, nutmeg and peppercorns thickened with blond roux + lime juice garnished with chopped and blanched tarragon and chervil. This sauce is suitable for serving with releves of boiled or poached large fish or joints of butcher’s meats.
Infused milk + Fresh white bread crumbs + salt + butter + cream. Served with roast poultry and roast game birds.
Butter sauce + capers. Served with boiled fish and is an indispensable accompaniment for boiled leg of mutton.
Cream sauce + celery puree. Served with roast turkey.
Stewed cranberries puree + sugar. Served with roast turkey.
Butter sauce flavored with blanched fennel. This sauce is served with grilled or boiled mackerel.
Butter sauce + chopped and blanched parsley. This sauce is served with calf’s head, feet and brains, etc.
Mayonnaise made with hard boiled eggs, fillets of anchovy, capers, tarragon, chervil, and chives + mustard + Cayenne pepper + vinegar + chopped parsley. Served with any kind of cold meat.
Red currant jelly + Port wine + Chopped shallots + orange and lemon juices and zests + mustard + Cayenne pepper + ground ginger. Mix all the ingredients together well. This sauce is served with cold venison.
Grated horseradish + mustard + castor sugar + sugar + cream + vinegar + soaked and squeezed bread crumbs. Served with roast and boiled beef.
Mint leaves chopped + castor sugar + vinegar + salt + pepper + water. Mix all the ingredients together. This sauce is served with hot or cold roast lamb.
9) Compound Butter Sauces (Beurres Composes)
Ail (d’ail) Sauce (Garlic Butter)
Garlic paste + Butter. Pass through a sieve.
Amande (Almond) Sauce
Almond paste + Butter sieved.
Anchois (Anchovy) Sauce
Anchovy puree + Butter sieved.
Reduction of wine (White wine with chopped shallots, bone marrow, parsley, salt, black pepper, lemon juice) + butter + cream.
Puree of caviar + butter.
Chivery or Ravigote Butter Sauce
Parsley, Shallots, Tarragon, Fresh Pimpernel and Chives, Blanched and Pounded in a mortar with butter and sieved.
Colbert Butter Sauce
Maître d’ hotel butter mixed with meat glaze and chopped tarragon.
Crevettes (shrimps) Sauce
Shrimps pounded with butter and sieved.
Ecrevisses (Cray Fish) Sauce
Carcass of Cray fishes pounded with butter and sieved.
Escargots (Snails) Sauce
Chopped Shallots, Crushed garlic, and chopped parsley, salt, pepper mixed with butter and brandy.
Estragon (Tarragon) Sauce
Tarragon leaves Blanched and pounded with butter and sieved.
Hareng (Herring) Sauce
Fillets of smoked herrings pounded with butter and sieved.
Homard (Lobster) Sauce
Creamy parts eggs and coral of lobster pounded with butter and sieved.
Maitre d’ Hotel Butter Sauce
Butter softened to a cream mixed with chopped parsley, salt, black pepper and lemon juice.
Butter in cream mixed with flour.
Nut brown cooked butter mixed with lemon juice and chopped parsley.
Moutarde (Mustard) Sauce
Creamy butter mixed with French mustard.
Noir (Black) Sauce
Cook butter until black. Strain and add vinegar.
Noisette (Nut Brown) Sauce
Cook the butter until a nice light brown color.
Chopped onions and Paprika, Tossed in butter and mixed with creamy butter and sieved.
Pound the Pimentoes with butter and sieve.
Butter made with new vegetables such as carrots, French beans, peas etc.
Raifort (Horseradish) Sauce
Scraped horseradish pounded with butter and passed through a sieve.
Tomatoes pounded with butter passed through a sieve.
Truffles pounded with butter and béchamel sauce, passed through a sieve.
10) Dessert Sauces (Sweet Sauces)
Cook apricots (dry or fresh) in very little water. Passed through a sieve boiled up with thickened syrup, flavored with vanilla and strained.
Syrup thickened with arrowroot and flavored with brandy or English sauce flavored with brandy.
English sauce with caramel or thickened syrup mixed with caramel, boiled up with little cream and butter.
Cherries cooked. Passed through a sieve mixed with reduced syrup and the same amount of red currant jelly, flavored with kirsch.
Chocolate dissolved with water, a little vanilla and sugar and cooked finished off before serving with butter and cream.
English Crème or Sauce al’Anglaise
Custard made of powdered sugar stirred with egg yolks cooked in double boiler or beaten in water bath with reduced milk flavored with vanilla or lemon zest and thickened and strained. Used hot or cold.
Butter creamed with sugar a little cream added flavored generously with Brandy. Hard sauce is served chiefly for plum or similar puddings.
Strained orange marmalade mixed with orange syrup flavored with curacao.
English sauce mixed with very finely ground praline and a little vanilla sugar.
Prepared like cherry or strawberry sauce.
Red Currant Sauce
Dissolved red currant jelly mixed with a little syrup thickened very lightly with arrowroot flavored with kirsch.
Vanilla syrup thickened with arrowroot flavored with kirsch mixed with juliennes of cherries.
Strawberry jam rubbed through a sieve mixed with syrup flavored with kirsch.
Simple syrup in ordinary sugar boiled with water to about 15 -18 degrees on a saccharine meter. For desserts it is slightly thickened with arrowroot or corn starch boiled and strained mixed with pure fruit juice or flavored spirits or liqueurs.
Same as English sauce flavored with vanilla.