What is Garnish?
The word “garnish” is derived from French word meaning “to adorn or to furnish.” In English, we use the word to mean to decorate or embellish a food item by the addition of the other items. The word also is used for these decorative items. But in fact, the term has been used for a great variety of preparation and techniques in the history of classical and modern cuisines.
In classical cooking, the terms garnish and garniture have been used the way we use the term accompaniments. In other words, garnishes are any items placed on the platter or plate or in the soup bowl in addition to the main item. A Garnish is an element added to food when it is served. In modern times, the main purpose of a Garnish is visual, but a Garnish may sometimes also serve to complement or contrast with the taste of the main dish. The Garnish can be placed on top of food or around it. Parsley may be the most often used and discarded garnish in our times. It’s little known that it does, in fact, have a purpose (in theory at least), that of sweetening the breath after eating.
Simple garnishes used in everyday cooking are chopped chives, parsley or other herbs, grated cheese, a drizzle of olive oil, or a wedge or thin slice of lemon, especially with fish. Sometimes what is deemed a garnish is a bit arbitrary a sprinkle of paprika would be considered a garnish, while the same of ground black pepper is considered as seasoning.
Not all garnishes are edible. Sushi is often garnished with the plastic grass called “baran”, and cocktails may come with cocktail umbrellas in them.
Garnishes were once seen as fancy, but by the end of the 1900s, had started to take on a “tacky” air. The same garnishes had been done to death for decades by mid-range restaurants and caterers: tomato roses, carrot flowers, gelatin cutouts, shaped butter pats, piped cream cheese. Most of these are just pushed aside on the plate or on the buffet serving platters. Still, some dishes aren’t really themselves without their garnish people definitely expect cherries on banana split sundaes. On buffet platters, Garnishes are usually arranged around the main item, and are usually items that are easy for people to handle when serving themselves: for instance, broccoli or asparagus spears, versus peas. Professional and keen home garnishes acquire a battery of specialized tools from butter curlers to melon ballers to piping bags.
Below is the List of some Classical garnish used in French Cooking.
- In the African style, as practiced by French chefs. Dishes that bear this title must convey the style of foods consumed in the vast continent of North, West, Central and East Africa, and the Union of South Africa. It was however indiscriminately applied by the French chefs to dishes during the reign of Napoleon III when Meyerbeer’s opera L’Africaine enjoyed great popularity .The principal ingredients used as garnish, giving dishes the right to bear this title are- chicken, mushroom, tomatoes, eggplant, curried and spiced foods; dishes garnished with savory rice or flavored with garlic or pimento and groundnuts. Coconut and pistachio nuts find their way in the sweet course.
- Wing tips of chicken. Foods garnished with small wings of poultry or fins of fish of certain types of fish. Example. Consommé ‘Ailerons’ Chicken consommé garnished with stuffed chicken wings and cooked rice.
- A Provencal olive oil cum garlic sauce. In Provence the Aioli is the name of the dish itself whether it be fish, vegetables or snails when served with this cold sauce.
- Sauce- Garlic flavored mayonnaise sauce with hard boiled eggs added sprinkled with cayenne.
- Formerly called Russian America, it is a territory of the United States of America.
- Sole Alaska – poached whole sole in white wine, half coated with a pink shrimp sauce and the other half with white wine sauce (made with fish liquor) garnished with poached oysters and noisette potatoes.
- Baked Alaska is America’s favorite dessert .It is frozen vanilla ice cream placed on a sponge cake base covered quickly with Meringue and baked in a hot oven to brown the meringue immediately
- Cantaloupe Alaska –cut cantaloupes into 2, fill with ice cream, topped with meringue and browned.
- Alexandra was the consort (the queen) of Edward VII, a king of Great Britain and Ireland in whose honor many dishes were named. Indicates inclusion of asparagus tips.
- Consommé Alexandra– Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca, garnished with shredded chicken, lettuce and asparagus tips.
- Chicken Sauté Alexandra– Cook the chicken breasts in butter, mask with thin soubise sauce reduced with cream, and garnish with asparagus tips.
- In the German style, dishes garnished with sauerkraut or pickled pork or smoked sausages.
- Consommé Allemande– Beef Consommé flavored with juniper berries thickened with tapioca flour garnished with julienne of red cabbage and slices of smoked sausages.
- Salad Allemande– Slices of apple, new potatoes, beetroot, mixed with smoked herrings fillets and gherkins sprinkled with chopped parsley and vinaigrette dressing.
- Literally means the wife of the Ambassador.
- Sole Fish– Crayfish encased in rolled fillets of sole, poached and served with sauce normande.
- Pudding– A rich custard flavored with kirsch with a layer of strawberries, served with strained strawberry jam flavored with kirsch.
- In the American style as practiced by the French chefs this garnish is used in different ways for different recipe garnish,
- With Fish– Slices of lobster tail and truffles.
- With Sauce– Tomato sauce enriched with cream, blended with pounded Coral butter and tail meat. Reduce with rich fish stock.
- With Dessert– Ice cream bombe mould, lined with strawberry ice cream flavored with grenadine, alternated with pistachio ice cream.
- With Salad– Sliced potatoes, tomatoes, celery, rings of onions and sliced hard boiled eggs with a French dressing.
- In the Andalusian style, a Spanish province.
- Chicken Consommé- garnished with diced tomatoes, cucumber and cooked vermicelli.
- Cold Sauce– Mayonnaise + tomato puree mixed with brunoise of capsicum.
- In the English style as prepared by the French chefs. It indicates a “plainly/simply prepared” dish.
- Garnish for Chicken- Mixed vegetable (carrots, French beans, turnips, potatoes, cauliflower) cooked in salted water.
- Côtelette de veau- Grilled breaded cutlets garnished with par boiled potatoes fried in butter.
- The first name of Anna Amelia, Duchess of Saxony, born 24thOctober 1739, chiefly applied to a certain manner of cooking potatoes invented by Chef Dugleré who was Chef at Café D’anglaise in Paris, in pre-war days.
- Potatoes- Peeled, sliced thinly, arranged in a shallow mould with melted butter and seasoning. Baked in the oven to golden yellow color.
- Name of a district in France, famous for its asparagus.
- Potage- Asparagus soup thickened with rice and garnished with asparagus points.
- Chicken- Large flat fillet, poached and coated with supreme sauce to which asparagus puree has been added.
- Meats/Fish cooked fresh and simple.
- Truite au bleu- Trout brought to the kitchen alive and stunned and gutted just before cooking in water and white wine. Flavored with herbs and vinegar served with parsley potatoes, hollandaise sauce or melted butter.
- Dawn-Break of day. The Roman Goddess of Dawn is Aurore. Consommé of veal stock with tomato puree added, garnished with diced chicken.
- Sauce- Bechamel sauce flavored with tarragon and lightly colored with tomato puree or lobster butter in case of fish.
- Oeufs- Julienne of hard boiled eggs in allemande sauce with grated cheese and browned under the salamander.
- Fruits- Cold dessert, made from fruits in season on strawberry ice cream with a Zabaione (sabayon) sauce flavored with Curacco.
- Turkish for father. It is generally acknowledged that the invention of the cake Baba au rhum belongs to the King Stanislaus of Russia. The king used to read the tales of a 100 nights and has named this after his favourite hero- Ali Baba.
- Baba au Rhum- A light yeast dough batter, sweetened and enriched with butter and eggs. While still hot, it is dipped in hot sugar syrup, strongly flavored with rum, whipped cream is piped on top of the cake. Baba au kirsch as above using kirsch instead of rum.
- Brittle, fight, battle array or Batailey – a chateau of the Bordeaux region.
- Potatoes- Cut in ½” square and deep fried in fat.
- The name of a family of German counts which died out about 1314.The title was revived in 1851.
- Batterburg Cake- A lattice pattern of pink, yellow and chocolate Genoise cake encased in rich almond paste.
- A Bavarian cream, Bavarian style. Example of Bavarian creams, Flavored custard using double the volume of cream (in relation to milk)
- Sauce- Rich hollandaise sauce flavored with Cray fish puree and paprika.
- The city in Spain was famous for its ham and pork and products. It is said mayonnaise was first spelled Bayonnaise, and Spain claims mayonnaise as one of her culinary creations.
- Canapé- A circle of rye toast heaped with minced ham.
- Poulet sauté- Young chicken fried with chopped ham, stewed in brown sauce and served with boiled rice.
- From the province of Bearn in the French Pyrenees.
- Sauce- Bearnaise is named by the chef of Henry IV at St. Germaine who first introduced this sauce. Yolks of eggs warmed in double boiler, with chopped shallots and herbs, with butter added piece by piece until the sauce is as thick as mayonnaise, lemon juice and cayenne pepper added.
- Chauteaubriand- Double fillet of beef, brushed with olive oil, broiled, garnished, with watercress and served with sauce bearnaise.
- Marquis de Béchamel, a courtier in the service of the king Louis XIV said to have invented Béchamel sauce.
- Lobster- Diced and mixed with béchamel returned to shell and baked.
- Sauce- Rich creamy white sauce made of flour and butter roux and milk, seasoned with salt, pepper, mace and bay leaf.
- Artichokes- Boiled artichokes served with béchamel sauce.
- Presumably named for the opera, ‘Belle Helene’ by Offenbach and produced 1864.
- Tournedos de Boeuf- Small fillets of, grilled and garnished with straw potatoes, and watercress and artichoke bottoms filled with sauce béarnaise.
- Desserts- Fresh fruits like pears, peaches stewed in vanilla flavored sugar syrup. When cold placed on ice cream and covered with rich glossy chocolate sauce garnished with whipped cream and nuts.
- A rich creamy cheese of Italian origin having a mild flavor, weighing 2-3lbs each.
- It is a suburb and market of Paris.
- Potage- Puree of spring turnips thickened with cream and egg yolk.
- Sauce- Thin, meat glaze with chopped shallots reduced in white wine and enriched with fresh butter, lemon juice and chopped parsley
- Sole Fish- Rolled fillets of fish, cooked under cover in butter with chopped shallots, mushroom liquor, white wine and chopped parsley masked with bercy sauce.
- A bitter Seville orange from Spain.
- Canard Sauvage- Wild duck served with orange salad and sauce bigarde.
- Sauce- Gravy from duck, reduced with fine shreds of orange and flavored with orange juice and little red currant jelly.
- In the style of Bologna, a city in Italy famous for its Bolognaise sausages.
- Spaghetti- Cooked in salted water, strained combined with diced/minced beef tossed in butter with minced onions moistened with veal stock, flavored with garlic and tomato.
- Good Woman J– Housewife style.
- Potage- Thick white bean and chicken soup with julienne of vegetables (leeks, sorrel, carrots and turnips).
- Sauce- Creamy white sauce made with finely chopped mushrooms and shallots, blended with butter, seasoned and thickened with cream and egg yolk and flavored with white wine.
- Sole- Poached fillets of sole, cooked with chopped shallots, mushroom, parsley, fish stock and white wine. Masked with fish veloute and browned.
- Poulet Sauté- young chicken sautéed with rich gravy reduced with white wine, garnished with diced bacon and button onions.
Bordelaise (a la)
- In the style of the city of Bordeaux.
- Sauce- Rich brown sauce, reduced with red wine and chopped shallots, tarragon, and parsley.
- Traditional grilled, blood sausage for the festivities on Christmas Eve in Germany (Alsace).
- A Provencal word indicates to boil and then stop.
- Bouillabaise – A Mediterranean fish stew of several kinds of fish cut in to small pieces and tossed in oil with chopped herbs and onions moistened with white wine seasoned with saffron, tomatoes and garlic, garnished with chopped parsley. Very popular with fishermen on the water front in Marseillaise who prepare this for a late breakfast with the leftovers of morning sale
Bouquetiere (a la)
- In the manner of flower girls, usually a garnish consisting of small fine vegetables dressed in small heaps around the meat
- Name of a family of French Rulers.
- Consommé- Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished with truffles cut into fancy shapes (hearts, diamonds, crescent etc.) and finely chopped chervil.
- Burgundy style, as a rule dishes in the preparation of which burgundy wine is added
- Sauce Espagnole- Sauce flavored with finely minced shallots, thyme, parsley, tarragon and mace. Burgundy wine is usually added.
- Garnish for joint (roasts) – Button mushrooms and onions tossed in butter with small dices of lean bacon and burgundy wine.
- Style of Bresse the French Provencal District famous for its fattened chicken, Poulardes des Bresse.
- Crème- Cream of pumpkin soup, garnished with Mezzanelli (Italian Pasta) and enriched with cream.
- Noted French gastronome and author of French works, chiefly famous for his book “La Physiologie du Gout” (the physiology of taste). The well-known light, spongy yeast cake made in ring form is named after him.
- Brunoy a district in France celebrated for its spring vegetables finely diced cooked root vegetables for a consommé garnish.
- Consommé- A rich beef consommé garnished with small diced carrots, Leeks, onion, turnip and celery, all browned in a little butter cooked in consommé.
- The highest dignitary in the Roman Catholic Church, after the pope. As a cardinal wears a distinctive scarlet dress and a scarlet cap, the kitchen term stands for any dish of that color. Usually lobster coral plays an important part in fish dishes.
- Consommé- Chicken consommé flavored with tomato puree garnished with finely cut julienne of vegetable strips of truffles and lobster dumplings.
- Lobster- Cubed lobster mixture mixed with Sauce Americaine and filled in lobster shells, sprinkled with cheese and breadcrumbs and browned in the oven.
- Sauce- Rich, white fish sauce blended with pounded lobster coral to give it a correct color, flavored with essence of anchovies and with tarragon.
- Garnish for fish- Diced lobster, truffle, shrimps or prawn and cardinal sauce.
- Dessert- Strawberries, peaches or pears poached in syrup and dressed on strawberry or raspberry ice cream with raspberry or strawberry sauce and sprinkled with sliced roasted almonds and little pistachio nuts.
- Antoine Careme (1784-1833) Chef to King George IV and later the Austrian emperor Francis II and the Russian Czar, Alexander I and author of many culinary works. Many dishes are named after this most famous chef.
- Carmen Sylva was the nom de plume of Elizabeth, Queen of Romania, and born 29th December 1843.
- Star role in the opera of the same name by Bizet which was first produced in Paris at the Opera Comedie on 3rd March 1875
- Consommé- Clear beef consommé well colored with tomato puree garnished with star shapes of pimento, boiled rice and chervil.
- Charlotte mould (tall, straight sided mould) lined with over lapping wafer biscuits and filled with strawberry or raspberry cream, mixed with a little gelatine and cream.
- The Celestine’s were recognized as a branch of the Benedictines. Celestine being a monk so named after Pope Celesten. Several dishes bear this name and are of an exquisite character. St. Celestine is commemorated on 6th April each year.
- Consommé– Clear broth garnished with shredded pancakes and chopped herbs.
- City and district of France, famous for its rich cream and fine green peas.
- Sauce Hot– Rich béchamel sauce blended with lightly whipped cream.
- Sauce Cold- Mayonnaise sauce blend with whipped cream flavored with lemon juice.
- In the manner of Pork butcher’s style.
- Sauce- Demi glaze mixed with chopped shallots, julienne of gherkins reduced with white wine, lemon juice, sugar and with parsley and mustard to finish.
- The convent, known as La Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble, France, former seat of the Carthusian monks. These monks who were strict vegetarians invented a vegetable composition (liqueur) usually made and cooked in moulds in a very elaborate way. When the monks were driven from France, they settled in Spain. From then, all manner of dishes were given this title including Chartreuse of meat, game, and poultry. Strictly speaking all dishes bearing the name Chartreuse should have a vegetable liqueur. It is a sweet liqueur made in Voirens in France, until the monks were turned out and now made in Spain. The secret of the recipe is closely guarded. Colours Yellow and Green.
- A Chaser, a hunter, hunter’s style from the famous chasseurs of Light Infantry or cavalry regiments who hunted for their food in the forest or on mountain heights.
- Consommé- A rich clear game soup garnished with game quenelles made from as many varieties of game as possible.
- Sauce- Minced shallots and mushrooms sautéed and reduced with white wine and demi glaze, chopped parsley.
- Poulet Sauté- Chicken sauté and finished in a casserole in the oven with tomatoes, brown chicken sauce, sliced mushrooms, chopped shallots and sprinkled with chopped parsley.
- Castle, feudal fortress, stronghold; also wine growing establishments with vineyards. Chateau potatoes are quartered potatoes with all sharp corners rounded off and cooked for a few minutes in butter in a sauce pan and then roasted in an oven used extensively to garnish roast meats.
- Vicomte Francois Auguste Chateaubriand was born at St. Malo on 14thSeptember 1763 died 4th July 1848. French author and a great gourmet. The favorite dish of a double fillet steak or the head of the tenderloin, is named after him. Chef Montmireil (chef to Vicomte de Chateaubriand) formed a pocket in a thick tenderloin steak to stuff it with chopped shallots and bone marrow. English cooks would sandwich their rump steaks with sliced shallots .The double fillet of beef is now served in so many different ways. The original Chateubriand as invented by Chef Montmireil was slit and filled with chopped shallots tossed in a pan with bone marrow to which was added meat glaze chopped chives, seasoned with cayenne and salt.
- Sauce- Rich brown sauce made with well reduced stock to half glaze enriched with butter and flavored with lemon juice, red currant jelly, cayenne pepper and chopped parsley.
- It is considered that the proto type of chaud-froid was first introduced by the Marquis de Chaufroix, who called for the cold bird to be brought back to the table in its congealed sauce and approved of it in that state.
- Sauce (white) – This is a masking sauce made with well reduced veloute blended with sufficient dissolved gelatine or aspic to set the sauce when cold.
- Sauce (brown) – Well reduced brown meat or game sauce treated as above. Also available in red (tomato), green (spinach).
- Chiffon means rag. Literally vegetables in rags, long shreds of vegetables. Leafy vegetables such as cress, lettuce and spinach.
- Consommé- Clarified soup, garnished with finely shredded lettuce leaves spring onion heads and other such vegetables, seasoned with mint leaves and tarragon.
- Consommé- Clear beef consommé garnished with fried onion rings and custard royale.
- Large quantities of this famous Scottish soup were consumed at the Burns centenary festival at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham in 1859. It is hard to trace the origin of this soup. Some say it originated from the days of cock fighting, the defeated cock being thrown in the pot, with leeks to give added flavor .This soup was then handed around with parts of the bird, to the spectators. Another version is that in olden times when the cock had passed its youth, the last purpose it served was the feast of “The Cock a Leekie”. However it was and still is a grand dish .This soup is also claimed to be from Wales whose emblem is the leek.
- Two famous dishes Sole a la Colbert and Consommé a la Colbert are in constant demand. The sole is named after Charles Colbert De Croissy, famous French diplomat while the delicious soup is named after Jean Baptiste Colbert, a statesman of France in the reign of Louis XIV. The consommé is distinguished by being garnished with poached eggs while the sole is noted for its stuffing of Maitre d’ hotel butter being placed inside before being sent to the table.
- Colbert butter- Maitre d’hotel butter mixed with a little meat glaze and chopped tarragon/parsley.
- Colbert sauce- Rich thin brown sauce and finely chopped herbs and lemon juice.
- Consommé- Clear beef soup garnished with lightly poached egg.
- Sole- Whole sole carefully opened along centre and backbone removed. Egg washed, crumbed and fried, stuff space with Colbert butter.
- Alexander Etienne Choron, born at Caen, France on 21st October 1771, died in Paris 29th June 1834. A French composer whose name is often confused with Chorin or Chiron.
- Sauce Choron- Bearnaise sauce blended with a good concentrate of tomato puree.
- Name of some twenty villages in France. Also an old French Family, Prince Louis de Conde.
- Dessert fruits like apricots, pineapple, peaches or pears, poached in syrup, and dressed on a bed of creamed rice, coated with an appropriate fruit sauce and decorated with preserved cherries and angelica and served hot or cold.
- It is the site of an important battle fought by Napoleon. City and district of France, carrots are used.
- Puree- Puree of young carrots thickened with barley.
- Consommé- Rich beef consommé garnished with julienne of carrots.
- Juice of Apple both fermented and non-fermented. The flavor and general quality of all types of cider depends on fruit and skin used in preparation. Hard cider is that which has been fermented until the sugars have changed to alcohol. It is a fermented drink with an apple base; it is refreshing and less alcoholic than wine. Special apples are used, sweet acid and tart. A good syrup is made with 1/3 sweet and 2/3 sour and acidic apples.
- The name of fine red wines from Bordeaux .The excellence of claret and the reason why it may rightly claim precedence over all other red wines is that it is harmonious and natural of all.
- French white Bordeaux wine “White Lady” – A comic Opera. Dame is the English legal designation, of the wife or the widow of a baronet. Only dishes white in color should bear this name.
- Bombe- Lined outside with vanilla ice cream and inside filled with almond paste garnished with whipped vanilla cream and spun sugar.
- Consommé- Chicken consommé garnished with diced chicken breast and almond flavored royale.
- Crème- Chicken veloute garnished with sago and diced chicken breast.
- Ancient term for a Provencal dish of braised meat or poultry. A ‘pot roast’ or a meat stews, braised en daube, that is, in a stew pot, more or less hermetically sealed. The old way was to seal the edges of lid of the pot with stiff dough of flour and water which when baked was discarded.
- Daubiere- A special saucepan in which meat en daube is cooked.
- The part of France which comprised the duchy of the king’s eldest son when France was a kingdom, especially under the Valois and Bourbon families.
- Consommé- Chicken consommé with a garnish of asparagus tips, tarragon leaves and royale cut in fancy shapes.
- Potatoes- Duchesse potatoes mixture mixed choux paste, shaped in walnut size balls and deep fried.
- Foods sprinkled with grated Swiss cheese and butter and baked brown.
Diable, a La
- Devil, devilled, a slightly spiced dish, sharp highly seasoned and accompanied with sauce diable.
- Diablotins- Small Dumplings, strongly spiced mixture with grated cheese, broiled / browned under grill. Used as an appetizer or soup garnish.
- Sauce- Chopped shallots sauté, reduce in vinegar, plus demi glaze, red wine, Worcestershire sauce and cayenne pepper.
- Roman goddess of the moon and of hunting, identified with bows and arrows and crescents. Any game preparation garnished with crescent shaped croutons.
- In the style of Dieppe, a coastal city of northern France, seafood style.
- Crème- Rich fish veloute, garnished with shrimp tails, mussels, and sliced mushrooms finished with cream.
- Garnish- Shrimp tails, mussels and mushrooms rich fish veloute sauce.
- Poulet sauté Forestiere- Chicken jointed and sautéed in butter, add sliced mushrooms, diced shallots and swill the pan with white wine and well reduced meat glaze; coat with the sauce and garnish with rolls of grilled bacon and parmentier potatoes.
A La Francaise
- French style, term applied to a number of French dishes cooked and prepared in a simple manner and chiefly denotes a style of the district in which the chef or cook originally lived.
- Sole a la Francaise- Whole or filleted sole dipped in milk and flour, fried and served with tomato and anchovy sauce.
- Cotelettes d’ Agneau a la Francaise- Breaded lamb cutlets, fried in butter garnished with mixed garden vegetables and sauce Madeira.
- The art of French Hospitality was introduced in France by Catherine de Medici during the early 16th century. This art was soon developed by the French cooks whose imaginative and creative ability brought some improvements upon the Italians heavier way of preparing dishes. Most of the French dishes bore the name of some saint, some mythical God or some Italian event or celebrity and these show marked evidence of having been created in some other country other than France. Gradually even actresses, actors, singers and poets have all been honored by great French chefs. Dame Nelly Melba has her name perpetuated for all times by that still popular dish – Peach Melba.
- Famous Italian patriot born in Nice, 4thJuly 1807, died at Capeira, 2ndJune 1882 Guisieppe Garibaldi an Italian general of world war I, born in Melbourne, 29thJuly 1879. Grandson of the Italian patriot.
- Consomme Garibaldi- Chicken consommé thickened with cooked spaghetti and garnished with chives cut julienne style. Serve grated cheese separately.
- Sauce Garibaldi- A rich brown sauce flavored with garlic, curry, capers, mustard and anchovy paste, served with fish or meat.
- Pertaining to the Italian city of Genoa. In the style of Genoa as practiced by the French cooks. It was the name of a sauce served only with fish coated in court bouillon. In confectionery, cakes made from a genoise mixture are called “Genoise Sponge”
- Greek pertaining to the Greek style as practiced by the fish cooks, dishes a la grecque should be of Greek origin in the method of preparation but in practice this is seldom the case though it sometimes happens that a dish called a la grecque on a restaurant menu is of Greek origin. More often the name is given to dishes of French origin
- Potage a la Grecque- Puree of peas cooked in mutton broth garnished with vegetables cut julienne style.
- Many favorite foods are of German origin specially Frankfurters and Hamburgers. The Germans are fond of cooking many foods sweet and sour; a combination of fruit, sugar, and spices. Lemon and raisins often give the desired sweet and sour flavor. German cooks are meticulous and often follow their own methods in preparing and cooking traditional dishes of their country. To Germany, we owe a way of treating vegetables (especially cabbage) which makes them palatable and tasty.
- Name of a long line of Earls and Dukes dating back to 1121. It would be correct to feature dishes so named on the birthday of the present duke. A port city and country town, Gloucestershire, England.
- Sauce Gloucester- Mayonnaise sauce mixed with sour cream, chopped tarragon and flavored with chilly vinegar, mustard.
- Gloucester Royal Pie- This was a pie made in olden times of Lampreys. These pies were richly decorated with gilded ornaments and often with banners bearing the Gloucester court of arms.
- Giovanni Francesco, Italian architect painter and engraver, born at Bolgna, 18thSeptember 1606. Joseph Grimaldi, noted actor born 18th December 1779.
- Consomme Grimaldi- Clear beef broth flavoured with tomato and garnished with celeriac cut julienne style.
- Sole Grimaldi- Rolled or folded fillets, poached and dressed in a casserole on a bed of cooked spaghetti coated with Nantua sauce and topped with sliced truffle.
- Haggis can be regarded as the national dish of Scotland. When this dish is served at certain large banquets in Scotland, it is accompanied by an escort of pipers while paying homage to their national poet, Robert Burns. The Scots have Haggis served and presented with due pomp and ceremony. It is carried in to the room by a servant who is proceeded by a piper and it is customary to drink whisky, whilst eating. The dish consist of thymus gland stuffed with a mixture of stuffed offal and oats, and then baked.
- In the early part of the 18th century France obtained its best beef from the Triesian plains via Hamburg, a sea port of Germany. The animals were driven in herds over the roads of Europe. The delicious hamburger steaks have now become world famous.
- Hamburger Steaks- Finely minced beef steak seasoned with salt, pepper, nutmeg, mixed with raw egg, shaped like a noisette, floured and fried in butter, garnished with fried onion and fried egg placed on top.
Hollandaise, a La
- In the style of the Netherlands, as practiced by the French cooks, Dutch style. Dutch cookery is closely related to that of Belgium. Being a country of rich pasture land, there is an abundance of high quality dairy products specially cheese, which represents one of the country’s largest exports. Holland is a country equally devoted to stock farming and fishing, so the Dutch table features a wide variety of characteristics and salted and smoked fish. Herring is the staple food of the Dutch people.
- Hungarian, in the Hungarian style as practiced by the French cooks. Dishes prepared a la Hongroise are cooked in a cream sauce seasoned with paprika.
- Hongroise- Beef steak cooked in butter, cooked with hongroise sauce (veloute blended with sour cream and white wine flavoured well with paprika) and garnish of bacon.
Indienne a La
- Indian style as practiced by the French cooks.
- Croquettes a l’indienne- Lobster and rice, seasoned with curry powder shaped into croquettes then fried and served with curry sauce.
- Potage a l’indienne- Mulligatawny soup with addition of coconut milk and cooked rice.
- Italian style as practiced by the French cooks. A name given to dishes made of meat, poultry, fish and vegetables. All these dishes contain finely chopped mushrooms. The name l’italienne is also given to method of preparing macaroni or other pastas. Italian cuisine is one of the oldest in Europe. It is derived from Greek Gourmet tradition, these being derived in their turn from oriental cuisine. Choose any ordinary Italian dish and it is a replica of one that was once enjoyed by gourmands reclining on their balconies in ancient Rome.
- Italian Polenta is same as the pulse that the Romans prepared en route, when they set out to conquer the world. They toasted grains of wheat, crushed them and made a gruel from the result. The only difference is the polenta is now made from coarse maize flour. Italian cuisine is considered the mother of all European cuisines.
- Gardeners style with a variety of vegetables, name given to a garnish made of fresh vegetables; carrots and turnips (shaped with a plain or fluted ball scoop, cut with a hollow tubular cutter or diced) green peas, small kidney beans, French beans diced or cut into lozenges, cauliflower. The vegetables are cooked separately, some boiled, and others glazed. They are arranged around the main dish in separate groups. This garnish is served with roast, stewed or braised meats and pot roasted poultry.
- Consommé Jardinière- Clear soup garnished with a variety of cooked garden vegetables.
- Jean Julich was a noted French chef who first made a clear vegetable soup in 1785 with vegetables cut in strips. The name is now applied to all vegetable garnishes cut in this manner.
- Made of sheets of fresh dough, Lasagna is an Italian pasta prepared in any of the ways as given for macaroni and noodles. Lasagna Lisci and Lasagna Ricci are lasagna with both sides grooved in waves. The above name are given to soups containing these pastas as a garnish. Now flavored with spinach (green) tomato (red/pink) and squid ink (black) lending a wide variety.
- A Parisian woman of the better class, a glamorous woman.
- Potatoes- Mashed and creamed, mixed with choux pastry, moulded into crescents and fried in deep fat.
- Province of Alsace, Lorraine. District of high gastronomic repute. Here the connoisseur of good cooking will savour many succulent dishes and will find white, rose and red wines all delightful. Though some are more fragrant than others, the dishes of Lorraine are for the most part substantial; heading the list of culinary specialties of what was once an ancient province. The Quiche Lorraine is perhaps its most famous dish.
- Lyons, city of France, in the style of pertaining to Lyons. The Lyonnaise district has an abundance of good quality potatoes as well as excellent onions such as those of Roanne which are used in the preparation of a large number of special dishes.
- Pertaining to the island of Malta.
- Potage Maltaise– A thin veal soup with a garnish diced oranges a little shredded capsicum, chillies and very small julienne of orange peel.
- Ris-de Veau Maltaise- Braised with béarnaise sauce decorated with the Maltese cross in Force meat.
- Sauce Maltaise– Hollandaise + blood orange juice
- The French form of Mandarin is a small orange from which liqueur is made.
- Glaze Mandarin- Fill the shells of mandarin oranges with orange ice topped with Meringue and baked quickly.
- North Italian village where the famous battle of Marengo was fought on 14thJune 1820 between Napoleon Bonaparte and the Austrians which victory was perpetuated by chef Dunard, Napoleon’s chef; by his creation of a chicken dish on the battle field itself. Poulet Sauté Marengo. It is characterized by a garnish of crayfish tails, poached egg on heart shaped croutons and parsley.
- Stock pot, metal or Earthen ware, covered pot with or without feet depending on whether it is used for cooking in the hearth or on the stove.
- Petit Marmite– Name of a clear savoury broth, a type of hot pot cooked and served in an earthenware pot. This broth was invented in Paris and is much prized by gourmets.
- One of the original 13 states of U.S.A. famous for its culinary creations.
- Chicken Maryland- Crumb fried joints, garnished with corn fritters, bacon rashers, grilled tomato and fried plantains.
- Speculation says that this sauce was invented by chef to the Duke Richelieu after the victory of Mahon (Mahonnaise). Others are convinced that Spain should be given credit for its origin. Mayonnaise is probably a corruption of Moyeeinoise derived from the old French word Moyeau which means egg yolk. Basically, it is a cold sauce with the basic ingredients of egg yolks and oil blended into an emulsion.
- Dame Nelly Melba a British Operatic Soprano. Her real name was Helen Porter Mitchell. She adopted the stage name Melba as she was a native of Melbourne Australia.
- Peach Melba- Scoops of vanilla ice cream topped with poached peach halves and glazed with raspberry jam/sauce.
- Small patisserie made from egg white and sugar. It is said that the dish was invented in 1720 by a Swiss pastry cook called Gasparine who practiced his art in Meringham, a small town in the province of Saxe Coburg. Until the beginning of the 19th century, meringues were shaped in a spoon as the pastry forcing bag had not yet been invented.
- Miller, Miller’s wife’s style method of cooking fish which is seasoned lightly, floured and fried in butter. To serve, squeeze a few drops of lemon juice and cover it. Sprinkle with parsley and pour on the cooking butter piping hot. Example- Sole meuniere.
- Pertaining to the Republic of Mexico, in the Mexican style as prepared by the French chefs.
- Potage Mexican– Puree of tomato soup with seasoned consommé.
- Poulet Sauté Mexicaine- Mushrooms capsicum and tomato (garnish).
- Small and delicate potatoes, cut thicker than match potatoes (alumettes) and cooked the same way.
- In the style of Milan, an Italian city. The usual garnish is spaghetti with shredded tongue, truffles and mushrooms blended with a puree of tomato and sprinkled with grated Parmesan cheese. Breaded meats have grated cheese mixed with bread crumbs and served with tomato sauce.
- Choufleur Milanese- Cooked buds of cauliflower sauté in butter, with grated cheese, buttered and baked.
- Soufflé Milanese- Lemon flavored soufflé, coated with biscuit crumbs and spiked with pistachio nuts.
- “Thousand Leaves” puff paste; a pastry very much in vogue in Paris. It is made by arranging thin layers of flaky pastry one on top of the other with layers of cream or some other filling in between. Mille Feuille can be baked in the form of a large sweet decorated in various ways or as in Paris Patisseries in small individual portions by cutting the flaky pastry in pieces 5cm wide and laying them one on top of the other sandwiched as mentioned above.
- 60 seconds; something small or short a la minute, hurriedly prepared sole and other such fish when filleted are cooked meuniere style.
- Minute Tenderloins- These are 4-5 oz. size, cut thin and sautéed with minced shallots and herbs.
- Pommes Minute- Diced and fried.
- Duc de, French Noble Family. Foundation ingredients of most brown soups, sauces and the first step in braising, being the preparation of the fat, aromatic vegetables, herbs etc. sauté to gain a brown color.
- Phillip De Plessis Mornay, French Protestant, born 5th November 1549. Name given to a rich creamy sauce loaded with Parmesan cheese.
- Sole Mornay- Poached and coated with Mornay Sauce and glazed.
- A town in France
- Sauce- Béchamel reduced with rich fish fumet, finished with crayfish or prawn butter.
- Garnish for Fish– Crayfish (or Prawns) tails with nantua sauce and slices of truffle.
- Omelets- Filled with chicken and truffle salpicon & sauce nantua.
- In the style of Naples city of Southern Italy often applied to dishes containing 3 distinct colors- red, white and green, the colors of the Italian flag.
- Consommé- Clear game soup garnished with shreds of ham and celery and a generous amount of Macaroni.
- Sauce- Brown sauce reduced with claret and red currant jelly with minced ham shallots grated horseradish flavored with bay leaf, cloves and thyme.
- Glaze- Ice cream layered in 3 distinct colors and flavors in oblong moulds and cut into oblong slices.
- Pertaining to the great town of Navarine in Italy, the scene of a battle on 20thOctober 1827.
- Navarin Printanier- A rich brown lamb or mutton stew with carrots, turnips and potatoes.
- In the style of Nice, city of southern France.
- Consommé- Consommé with vermicelli and peeled tomatoes cut in small squares. Bring to a boil, serve grated cheese separately.
- Sauce- Demi glaze and tomato puree.
- Garnish for Fish– Chopped tomatoes sautéed with garlic, Lemon slices and anchovy fillets topped with capers.
- Salad- French beans, tomatoes, potatoes, olives and anchovy fillets.
- Hazelnut– a term also applied to small, round, boneless, fatless pieces of meat such as small loins of lamb, rolled, thin cuts into dainty rounds.
- Butter– Clarified butter browned hazelnut color.
- Sauce– Supreme sauce, noisette butter, pounded hazelnut.
- Potatoes- Small hazelnut sized potatoes, sautéed in butter or fried in deep fat to golden yellow.
- In the style of Normandy, north western province of France, Chief characteristics of fish dishes being mussels, oysters and shrimps with apples featured in most meat, poultry and game recipes.
- Sauce- White sauce finished with egg yolks and butter flavored with lemon juice reduced cream.
- Potatoes- Sliced, cooked in casserole with milk, onions and leeks browned on top under a grill.
- Pertaining to the Oriental, Eastern Style.
- Consommé- Carrots and turnips shaped like half-moons, boiled, served hot in consommé with plain boiled rice.
- Sauce- Sauce Americaine, with diced onion sauté lightly and flavored with curry.
- Bernard van Orly, noted Flemish painter. Fish or meat coated with rice egg batter, fried in deep fat and usually served with tangy tomato sauce.
- Sauce- Rich white sauce blended with meat extract and loaded with tomato puree.
- Pertaining to Palus, the low lying vine yards of Gironde is France producing the cheaper types of carrots.
- Sauce- Bearnaise sauce with an infusion of fresh mint.
- In the style of Paris, dishes usually dressed elaborately.
- Consommé- Garnish of vegetables white leeks and custard royal.
- Sauce- Rich brown sauce with chopped parsley and shallots, Madeira and meat glaze with fresh butter fine herbs.
- Potatoes- Marble size potatoes, sautéed in butter sprinkle and chopped herbs.
- Chicken Sauté- Jointed chicken sautéed in butter, seasoned with done, cooked in tomato sauce with fresh sliced mushrooms for 2 minutes. Serve Chicken dressed on a platter cover with sauce and garnish with Macaroni in cream.
- Antoine Augustin (1737-1813) French agriculturist, writer and food expert. In 1786, he introduced the potato to France and created many styles of cooking this tuber.
- Potatoes- Cut into large diced blanched and cooked in casserole with butter and chopped parsley.
- Cheese made in Parma, Italy, from cow’s milk, very hard, used as a garnish/topping for many Italian pasta dishes, soup and chicken for which it is a proper partner.
- In the peasant style, farmer’s wife style. Usually dishes prepared in a pot or casserole with onions, salt pork, and artichoke bottoms.
- Potatoes- Sliced smothered and chopped onions, sorrel, chervil and baked in the oven with pork drippings.
Perigourdine/a La Perigord
- Pertaining to Perigord, in France. Dishes finished with truffles from that district.
- Sauce Perigourdine– Demi glaze with foie gras puree. Garnished with slices of Truffles.
- A piquant pepper sauce.
- Sauce- a brown pepper sauce, flavored with ham, onions, celery, bay leaf, and thyme, reduced with vinegar and black pepper.
- Polish style as practiced by French chefs.
- Sauce- Veloute with sour cream, chopped fennel, lemon juice and grated horse radish.
- Jeanne Antoinette Poison Le Normand D’etrores, Marquis De Pompadour. Mistress of Louis the XV of France, born 29th December 1721 had a great influence in the politics of France.
- Consommé- Chicken Consommé garnished with turnips and carrots, pink, green and plain royal, fancily cut.
- Salad- Sprigs of cooked cauliflower, sliced potatoes, celeriac, seasoned with celery salt.
- Sauce- Allemande or Veloute with slightly cooked minced shallots, cream, egg yolks chopped mushrooms and parsley.
- Porter House Steak– A thick Steak cut from the middle of the ribs of beef ½” – 2” thick.
- Consommé– A rich clear beef soup with stoned and halved prunes, diced ripe tomatoes and strips of leeks.
- Sauce- Tomato sauce reduced with rich veal gravy, flavored with garlic and onion and chopped parsley.
- Garnish- Small stuffed tomatoes, chateau potatoes with tomato sauce.
- Name of a very popular velvet like sauce made with an egg liaison.
- Sauce- Rich white sauce flavored with herbs thickened with egg yolks and fresh butter, finished with lemon juice and chopped parsley.
troduced the potato to f MaccPrince, Princesse, Princierre (Prince, Princess, Princely)
- Consommé- Clear chicken broth garnished with diced chicken and asparagus points.
- Sauce- White fish sauce, enriched with crayfish, butter, finely shredded crayfish and truffles.
Printanier, a La Printaniere, Printemps
- Spring like, spring, spring time.
- Potage Printanier- Soup made of spring vegetables.
- Consommé- A clear soup garnished with spring vegetables which may be ball shaped or cut finely.
- Sauce- Rich Veloute and puree of green vegetables with finely cubed green vegetables.
- Of Provence, formally a maritime province of France. A la Provencale in the style of that region usually implies that garlic, olive oil and tomatoes have been used.
- The word is believed to stem from Mala Tafia, a spirit of liqueur made from cane sugar. This has taken on certain occasions to ratify a treaty or agreement. The drink is now a light liqueur with a slightly bitter almond flavor.
Ravigotte, Ravigoter (To Revive, Refresh)
- Sauce (Hot) white sauce flavored with fine herbs reduced with white wine and vinegar and finished with butter and cream.
- Sauce (Cold) a spicy mayonnaise colored green with spinach puree mixed with finely chopped chives, parsley and tarragon.
- After the style of the famous Reform Club where Alexis Soyer was the chef.
- Garnished for Cutlets and Entrees– julienne of ham, tongue, truffles, boiled white of egg, mushrooms, carrots and beetroot and gherkins + reform sauce.
- Sauce- Poivrade sauce diluted with port wine and red currant jelly.
- Cardinal Armand Jean Du Plessis De Bonn in Paris.
- Consommé- Beef consommé garnished chicken quenelles julienne of carrots and turnips with shredded chervil.
- Sauce- Rich brown sauce with Madeira wine and meat extract.
- Italian Arborio rice, moistened with broth. Seasoned, steamed in covered pan without stirring. White wine, butter and grated cheese are then added.
- Name of one of the earliest kings of France. King of Naples, son of Charles II
- Sauce– Rich brown sauce and chopped sauteed onions reduced with chilly vinegar, red wine, and prepared mustard, spicy and pungent.
- Potatoes- Sliced and stewed in Robert sauce or baked, scooped out pulp flavored with chives shaped into patties and shallow fried.
- In the manner pertaining to Rome.
- Potage- Chicken stock, rice, onions, carrots, celery, cream seasoning.
- French cheese made from Ewe’s milk which has attained a worldwide reputation. The green mottling develops around bread crumbs that are used in preparing it.
- Gironde Antonio famous Italian Opera composer. Born at Pasio, friend of Cooks and Maitres d’ Hotel in the cosmopolitan restaurants of Europe. Tournedos and Filet Mignons
- Italian Method- Sautéed in butter, placed on a lightly fried slice of bread and garnished with asparagus tips braised white Italian Truffles and small grilled tomatoes; surrounded with demi glaze.
- French Method- The boiled tenderloin is topped with sliced foie gras tossed in butter, masked with Madeira sauce.
Royal, Royale, a La Royale (Regal-Kingly Style)
- Custard Royal- Seasoned eggs with milk or Consommé steamed cut into cubes maybe flavored with or covered variously with puree of vegetables, poultry or game.
- Consommé- Beef Consommé garnished with plain royale custard.
- Russians were real gourmets. They knew how to eat and how to prepare a dish that was always delicious to the palette. Their Zakuski is a somewhat elaborate overture in a meal. The famous Russian Caviar is relished on the French table.
- Borscht- Beef Soup cooked with red beets, onions, celery, cabbage, potatoes and carrots, served with sour cream.
- Blinis- Pancakes made from Buckwheat flour served with smoked sturgeon or salmon and caviar, sour cream and melted butter.
- Shashlik Moscow- Loin of pork pickled and broiled on a skewer before an open fire served with cooked or raw vegetables.
- Baklava- Original pastry dough made of dough, honey, nuts, and butter.
- Russian Rum Baba- A delicious yeast cake flavored with salt, sugar, spiced with cinnamon and cooked in rum.
- An Italian wine cream or egg punch served as dessert sweet in glasses and eaten with a spoon. Zabaglione or Zabaione in Italian. Also refers to a thick consistency obtained by beating egg yolks and sugar vigorously.
- Suburb of Paris where a castle was built by Louis VI, Treaty of St. Germaine was signed here.
- Crème- Puree of peas and onions, with veal stock, enriched with cream and egg; garnished with sprigs of fresh mint.
- Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, peer and marechal of France.
- Sauce- A rich creamy sauce blended with onion puree seasoned with sugar, salt, pepper, nutmeg.
- Spanish food is highly flavored and colorful with the use of pimentos and tomatoes. Spaniards claim to have first made Mayonnaiseand Espagnole. A characteristic feature of Spanish cooking is a mixture of a number of ingredients in one dish. Most of their cooking is done in oil as butter is expensive.
- Sir Henry Morton, famous British explorer of Africa.
- Sauce- Rich cream sauce with grated horseradish and curry powder.
- A Viennese desert specialty of wafer thin dough in roll form with chopped apples, pistachios, raisins, sugar, lemon rind, cinnamon.
- Highest best quality. The best parts of poultry, breast of chicken.
- Sauce- Rich white velvet sauce made from well cleared chicken broth enriched with cream.
- Lobster- Diced lobster mixed with chopped olives, hard boiled eggs, capers, French dressing, chilled and served on a bed of chilled lettuce, surround alternately with slices of cucumber and tomato, garnished with lobster claws.
- Said to be the name of the lady friend of a V.I.P.; at the end of the 19thcentury, during whose visit to a humble Parisian cabaret, the Crepe Suzette were created in her honour by chef Henry Charpentier.
- Crepes- Thin pancake doused in a thick sauce of orange juice, lemon juice, butter, sugar flavored with rind and orange liqueur flamed with brandy and served hot.
- Name given during the French revolution to the 11th month of the year in the republican calendar.
- Lobster- Roasted Lobster meat in a cream sauce with shallots, Parsley, Mustard, Tarragon meat, butter. Arranged in the shell sprinkled with grated cheese ground in oven.
- An Italian term used in connection with ice cream where various kinds of candied fruits are used.
- In the manner of Tyrol; an Austrian province in the Alps.
- Sauce (Cold) – Tomato Mayonnaise Sauce.
- Sauce (Hot) – Rich hollandaise with Tomato Puree.
- Giuseppe Fortino Francesco, Famous Italian Operatic composer and singer. Born in 1913.
- Sole- Folded fillets, poached in wine, dressed on cooked macaroni mixed with shreds of truffle and lobster coated with cheese sauce and glazed.
- French form of Veronica, characterized by use of seedless grapes.
- Sole- Rolled, poached fillets dressed with 3-4 grapes (peeled and piped) on each and coated with a blend of sauce Hollandaise and sauce Vin Blanc.
- Green Meadow- Dishes served with fresh green vegetables. Garnish for chicken consommé. Green Peas, asparagus tips, French beans, lettuce, chervil, chicory.
- City of France, a noted Spa, Vichy Celestine is a practically flavourless water and may be used as table water.
- Potage- Puree of red carrots with cream liaison.
- Carrots– Glazed with butter, sugar, salt, parsley in Vichy water.
- Southern state of USA noted for its food.
- Ham– A fine ham, flat and lean of the “Rapos” Black pig, peanut fed and chicory smoked.
- Chicken- Sauté fillets in butter moistened with cream, braise to finish. Serve on a slice of Virginia ham, and corn fritters garnish.
- One of New York’s famous Hotels. The Waldorf Astoria, the old Waldorf having being names after the village of Waldorf near Heidelberg, Germany.
- Salad- Juliennes of celery, diced apples, mixed with mayonnaise, set on a bed of lettuce, sprinkled with chopped walnuts.
- Eggs– Poached eggs on a canapé spread with foie gras and a mushroom on top. Served with Madeira sauce and truffles. Tomato: filled with Waldorf salad.
- Polish Countess, the mistress of Napoleon bore him a son who then became Count Walewaski, French politician, diplomat and author.
- Sole- Poached folded fillets, dressed on a ragout of sliced lobster, mushroom and truffle, blended with lobster sauce, coated with cheese sauce and glazed under the salamander.
- Omelets- Stuffed with diced lobster, truffles, caviar.
- Arthur Wellesley, first Duke of Wellington famous for victory over Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo in June 1815.
- Beef- Seasoned beef wrapped in pate, duxelle and puff pastry. Baked and sliced and served with Madeira sauce.