Stock is cooking liquid containing some of the soluble nutrient and flavor of the food which is obtained by prolonged and gentle simmering except in case of fish stock which is cooked only for 20 min. Stock is used as a foundation liquid in making of sauce, soups, gravies and many other important kitchen preparation.
Types of Stock
There are namely four type of stock which is derived from various sources, they are;
1. White Stock (Fond Blanc)
2. Brown Stock (Fond Brun)
3. Vegetable or Neutral Stock (Fond Maigre)
4. Fish Stock (Fume De Poisson)
It is made from white meat, beef/veal bones, chicken carcasses, aromatic vegetable (Mirepoix). The meat and the bones are put in cold liquid and slowly brought to boil, mirepoix (flavouring based of diced vegetable) is sweated in suitable fat and added to the liquid before it develop any color. The mixture is then reduced by simmering to finish cooking; this stock is used for making white sauce, blanquettes, fricassee, and other poached dishes. The time required to make this stock is 2-4 hrs.
Points to remember
Bones should never be browned; also the stock should never develop color as this stock is used in the preparation of the white sauce.
This is derived from the bones of beef, veal, poultry and mutton after long cooking for about 6-8 hrs. These bones are roasted till golden brown in color along with mirepoix without being burnt. Mirepoix is added when the bones are 3 quarter roasted, tomato product can be added here but that is optional. When the bones and the mirepoix is golden in color then cold water is added to the mixture and the liquid is slowly brought to boil followed by simmering to finish cooking; this stock is used in making of brown sauce, braised dishes, meat glazes and brown gravies.
Points to remember
Don’t over brown the bones or the vegetable as this will spoil the flavor and color of the stock.
The bones can be rinsed if required but should be dried well to remove the excess of moisture before roasting, as time taken to do this will reduce the time of roasting because if the bones are roasted when they are still wet and frozen then first they will steam before browning process, due to steaming there may be loss of flavor and also there are chances of the bones getting burnt.
- Bones should be cut in to small pieces so that the bone marrow is exposed.
- Bones which has high fat on it should be avoided because it will turn the stock milky.
- Bones and the mirepoix should always be browned as this gives richness to the stock.
- Water level should always be above the bones.
3).Vegetable or Neutral Stock
This is a stock which is made from vegetable and aromatic herbs by sauteing it gently in butter and cooked in liquid. This is a new type of stock which is gaining popularity in modern cookery.
It is categorized separately from the other basic stock because of its limited usage, it is the foundation of mostly all fish preparation, the preparation only requires 20 min; longer cooking breaks down the flavor of the stock and turns the stock milky.
Points to remember
Oily fish should never be used in making of the fish stock as this will spoil the stock.
Don’t cook for more then 20 min.
Fish should be fresh and flesh should be white in color
If any complementary juices of oyster, clam or mussel are used then it should only be used as additive to enhance the flavor and should not be reduced.
Composition of Stock
• Selected bones and trimmings
• Bouquet Garni
• Mushrooms and Tomatoes (optional)
Four Principle of Stock Making
1. Start with cold liquid/water
2. Allow natural clarification to occur
3. Skim carefully
4. Simmer, DO NOT BOIL